The fact exists that substation automation, protection and control systems have changed significantly in the past decade and will continue to change with technology advancements. Systems have become more interconnected and provide end users with much more information to allow for higher reliability and greater levels of control. Interoperability between different vendor products and systems has been achieved by developing products and solutions based on open standards and by leveraging commercial technology like standard Ethernet technology. This change in technology has not only brought huge benefits from an operational point of view as discussed in the previous sections, it also permits substation automation, protection and control systems to address cyber security issues similar to other traditional, enterprise systems which have been facing the same industry challenges for years.
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